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Extracts from the
Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States
Part II Vol. 111, published 1901
Compiled from Official Papers
J. George Scott
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Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States
Part II Vol. 111, published 1901
Compiled from Official Papers
J. George Scott
press ctrl + f to search this page
RUBY MINES DIST.
Mogok & Bernardmyo
The Ruby Mines district consists of the subdivisions of Mogok and Tagaung, which are part of Burma proper and of the Shan State of Momeit (Mong Mit) which is at present also administered as a subdivision... The area of the district thus composed is approximately five thousand four hundred and seventy-five square miles and the population numbers.....
It is bounded on the north by the Shweli river and by an undefined line leaving the Shweli river below Manmwe village and striking the Setkala Chaung between the village of Sipwa and Sagagon. This forms the boundary with Katha district. From the point... the boundary being that laid down in General Notification No. 207 dated 23rd July 1892, namely... On the west the Irrawaddy river forms the boundary between Ruby Mines district and the districts of Shwebo and Katha....
After the annexation enquiries were set on foot as to the best route to the ruby mines and with effect from the 20th September 1886 the Ruby Mines district was formed...
The strip of the Momeit State between Mogok and the river was taken over and the Sagadaung circle was given to Momeit in exchange. On that date the first Civil Officer posted to the charge of the Ruby Mines district established a military base at Kyan-hnyat and his first duty was to arrange for the military occupation of the mines and to discover his headquarters and the best way of reaching them. The headquarters of the new district were placed temporarily at Kyan-hnyat.
An expedition, consisting of the 51st King’s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, the 43rd Gurkhas, a Mountain Battery and a company of Sappers and Mines proceeded from Kyan-hnyat through Sagadaung and the village that is now known as Bernardmyo to Mogok. Some little resistance was offered in the neighbourhood of Mogok, but on the advance of the troops it collapsed and Mogok was found practically deserted. The military station of Bernardmyo was established, with a view to its being developed into a sanitorium and the district headquarters were fixed at Mogok which is the centre of the ruby industry.
On the 9th February 1888 all that part of Ruby Mines district which lay on the west bank of the Irrawaddy was transferred to Shwebo district (Genl. Notification No. 39, dated 9th Feb. 1888) and on the 29th March 1888 the Kyan-hnyat and Hingamaw townships were transferred to Myadaung (Katha) district (Genl. Notification No. 84 dated 29th Mar. 1888.) This reduced the Ruby Mines district to the area of the present Mogok township and the tract between it and the river.
On the 1st October 1889 the portion of the Momeit State adjoining the Irrawaddy river, consisting of the Twinnge and Daungbon States was transferred to Ruby Mines and together with the tract between the present Mogok township and the river was formed into Twinnge township (Foreign Dept. Notification No.... dated 1st Oct. 1889.) On the 22nd January 1891, by General Dept. Notification No. 19 the Ruby Mines district was constituted of the subdivision of Mogok, comprising the two townships of Mogok and Twinnge.
On the 19th May 1892 the Shan State of Mong Mit (Momeit) was constituted temporarily a subdivision of Ruby Mines district, consisting of the three townships of Mong Mit (Momeit) Mong Lang (Mo-hlaing) and the Kodaung (Political Dept. Notifications...)
On the 19th December 1892 the whole of the Kyan-hnyat township and so much of the Myadaung township as lay east of the Irrawaddy were transferred from Katha (formerly Myadaung) district to Ruby Mines district, with effect from 1st January 1893 (Genl. Dept. Notification...) and the Ruby Mines district so formed was divided into two subdivisions, Mogok consisting of the Mogok township only and Tagaaung, consisting of the townships of Kyan-hnyat and Twinnge...
With effect from the 1st April 1894 the headquarters of the Kyan-hnyat township and of the Tagaung subdivision were moved from Kyan-hnyat to Tagaung (Genl. Dept. Notification... dated 19th Mar. 1894) and with effect from 1st July 1894 the portion of the Kyan-hnyat township south of the Tadaunggya chaung (including Kyan-hnyat) was transferred to the Twinnge township and the northern part of the township was re-named the Tagaung township (Genl. Dept. Notification No... dated 7th June 1894.)
On the 15th October 1895 the headquarters of the Twinnge township were moved to Thabeikkyin (Genl. Dept. Notification... dated 8th Oct. 1895) and on 23rd June 1897 the Twinnge township was re-named the Thabeikkyin township (Genl. Dept. Notification No...) The district as at present constituted consists of the following sub-divisions:-
The subdivisions differ from one another largely in general character. Mogok consists entirely of hills, the highest rising to over seven thousand feet, intersected by narrow valets. The Tagaung subdivision comprises a narrow strip along the Irrawaddy river, subject in places to inundation, the ground rising rapidly inland to the hills, which run more or less parallel with the river. The highest range is behind Sabenago, where Shwe-udaung rises to a height of 9,231 feet. Behind Twinnge there is a dip in the hills which gives access to the Momeit valley. This is of considerable extent, the rest of the Momeit subdivision consisting of hilly country similar to that above Mogok.
... The ruby is found in Mogok Kathe and Kyatpyin. The sapphire is found mostly at Bernardmyo and also at Gwebin and Ye-e. Spinels are found at Mogok, Kathe and Kyatpyin, generally mixed with rubies. Large quantities are also found in U Daung-myin, north of Mogok. The moonstone occurs in Kye-nitaung two miles east of Mogok and is fairly common. Jasper and Jarcon are usually found along with rubies and sapphires. Tourmaline appears in the Mobye chaung near Nyaungdauk.
Lapis Lazuli is found in Thapanbin chaung and in the grove near Payathonsu, between Mogok and Kyatpyin. Crystal is found in great abundance on the Salintaung. Mica schist occurs throughout the whole district. Gold is said to have been found in Mobye chaung and also in the Wapyutaung and Thabeikkyin streams and silver in the Shwe-u-taung at the foot on which are some ancient mines.
Garnets are very plentiful in the U Daung-taung near Sabenago and are also met with in smaller quantities in Mogok, Kyatpuin and Pyaunggaung. The statement below shows the approximate value of precious stones extracted in the years named...
The Teak Zone
There are various classes of forest in the district, divided into zones according to altitude and all perfectly distinct from one another. Round the foot of the ranges which cover about half the area of the district are forests of teak and in. The chief teak forests lie along the foot of the Shwe-u-taung from Sagadaung in Momeit to Twinnge on the Irrawaddy and again from Twin-nge southwards to Singu, where they join the Madaya forests. The area of this tract is roughly two hundred square miles. Much of the full sized teak has been already worked out and numbers of trees girdled by former lessees are to be found in every direction. The forests are, however, still valuable and their reservation had been carried out....
Teak becomes scarce inland above a height of two thousand feet and at two thousand five hundred feet it disappears altogether and gives place to oak and chestnut, which are found up to an altitude of five thousand feet. Above this is found a type of evergreen forest peculiar to the higher mountains of this part of Burma.
The oak and chestnut zone blends very gradually into that of teak and the taungya cultivations render the marking of the change no easy matter. Many trees of the plains can however be traced up to a height of four thousand feet, mingled with the oaks and chestnuts...
These changes lead up to the true evergreen forest. It is of a peculiar type, said to be found nowhere else except in the Upper hill forests of Tenasserim. The growth is lofty and dense and gigantic climbers, such as Mucuna macrocarpa abound and with Mellocandas (small bamboos) tree ferns, bananas, climbing rattans, palms and the like, give the forest a semi-tropical appearance...
At all times the forest is gloomy and except for a short time in the dry season, dripping with moisture. The characteristic species.....
Inside the forest, in spite of the gloom, there is a great display of colour, owing to the variegated foliage and rich flowering of a large number of the trees and especially of the undergrowth. (E.M. Buchanan.)
The following statement shows the areas which have been reserved and those which are now in process of reservation. The reserves in the neighbourhood of Mogok were taken up to provide for the future wants of the town as the forests were rapidly being cleared with the constantly increasing demand for timber and fuel. The reserved area in the Thabeikkyin township is in an uninhabited tract and is a continuation of the Madaya reserves of Mandalay district. The reserves in the Momeit State are extensive and rich in teak but they were worked to excess before the Annexation and will take some years to recover. Some of the areas are now being worked out by Messrs. Darwood & Co. of Rangoon.
Name of reserve
Constituted by notification of 22nd Sept. 1898
In process of reservation
“ Notified 10th Aug. 1898
“ Notified 23rd July 1898
Constituted by notification 4th Nov. 1898
An experimental orchard was planted near Bernardmyo with English apples, pears, peaches, quinces and walnuts but, though the climate and soil are reported to be suitable, the experiment has not been a success. The orchard had suffered from lack of experienced supervision and has frequently been damaged by jungle fires. When trees have borne fruit, it has usually failed to ripen and eventually been spoilt by the rain. Most of the grafted trees seem to have reverted to the more vulgar stock. English vegetables have been more successful; potatoes have been introduced and are grown by the Li-hshaws in considerable quantities, while the Commissariat garden at Bernardmyo and several Chinese and European gardens near Mogok give a good supply of cabbages, peas, beans, celery, beet-root and other varieties. Straw-berries have also been grown with fair results.
... The climate of Mogok is temperate and well suited for Europeans. During the rainy season, which extends from May to the end of October, the prevailing winds are northerly, whilst in the cool and dry months southerly winds are general. Bernardmyo is cooler and more healthy for the robust. Many parts of the district are very malarious and many of the natives suffer from fever in Mogok. Europeans who get fever in Mogok have probably contracted it in the more malarious parts of the district....
Shan-Tayoks, commonly called Maingtha (and Tai-che by the Shans) come into the district in large numbers every year. They are a floating population, but they are constantly present and seem to come every year in increasing numbers. They take up coolie work of any description.....
They come chiefly from the Shan-Chinese States of Mong La, Mong Sa and Mong Tat. They are generally called after the State they came from. Their journey takes them fifteen days’ steady marching. They are largely employed on Government works, road-making, timber sawing and the like and are also used by the Ruby Mines Company and for digging work generally.
They are inveterate gamblers and smugglers but otherwise are very useful visitors for they work better than any race in Burma....
They use the well-known Chinese wooden saddle. Their usual time of arrival is the end of December and they leave again about the end of April. A good many have settled in Mogok with their wives and families and work permanently in the ruby mines.
... The only distinctive industry is mining for and trading in precious stones. A certain amount of cutting and polishing is also carried on, but most of the stones are sold in the rough. The best stones are sent to London and the lower qualities to Mandalay, Calcutta and Madras.
Ruby Mines district for mining purposes has been divided into two “Stone Tracts” called respectively the “Mogok Stone Tract” and the “Mong Mit Stone Tract.” The boundaries of the former, which practically coincides with the Mogok township, are defined in Revenue Dept. Notification No. 6 dated 19th Nov. 1887 and include an area of about six hundred square miles. They are....
The “Mong Mit Stone Tract” as defined in Revenue Dept. Notification No. 82 dated 5th Mar. 1896 comprises all the rest of the district. The “Mong Mit Srone Tract” has been leased to the Burma Ruby Mines Co. for fourteen years from 1st November 1896 on the terms set out in an indenture made between....
Mr Barrington Brown, a Geological Surveyor who was deputed by the India Office to examine the mining area in 1887..... Mr Lockhart, who was for two years Engineer-in-Chief to the Burma Mining Co. suggested....
The only method by which the rubies have been as yet extracted from it is by blasting and this involves serious injury to the stones. A quarry near Mogok was worked after this method for fifteen years prior to the Annexation with fair results but since then blasting has been forbidden except under an extraordinary license and this method has not been developed by the lessees, as no economical way of extracting the stones without injury has yet been discovered and the stones found in the experiments made were not so fine as to encourage further working.
... On the annexation of Upper Burma various suggestions were made as to the most promising way of developing the native methods by scientific appliances...
A small amount of Mica is extracted in the neighbourhood of Twinnge, where mining rights over a square mile were leased to a Mr D’Attaides in 1894 but very little has been done to develop the concession.
... The Ruby Mines Co. pay a rent of Rs. 3,15,000 a year besides a share of profits, but as the Company have never hitherto realised any profits the revenue from this source has been confined to the fixed rent.
... Prior to this the tract was covered with dense jungle and very thinly peopled.... The Royal Order ran as follows “The City of Ava was founded the second waning of Tawthalin, 950 B.E. (1588 A.D.) The villages of Mogok and Kyatpyin are ruby-producing tracts under the Sawbwas of Momeit. They must be taken over and included in the Kingdom of Ave....”
In the wars which Bodaw-paya waged against Assam and Manipur many captives were taken and these were deported to a site selected for them to the north of Kyatpyin, where they were employed as State slaves in digging rubies....
... Prior to the last century no one knew the proper value of the stones. The working of the mines was compulsory and all stones have to be made over to the kyaukwun.... They gradually began to purchase the stones or barter good for them and soon found that there was a ready market for them in the plains. This discovery introduced smuggling among the diggers and it has continued ever since.
The district was first occupied in the autumn of 1886 by a force consisting of the 51st Kings Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, the 43rd Gurkha Light Infantry, a Mountain Battery and a Company of Sappers and Mines. There was some resistance, particularly at Taungme but it was soon overcome and the villagers who had fled returned before long.... Messrs. Streeter, whose agents had accompanied the force, were allowed the privilege of purchasing stones from the miners. All stones not bought by them were sent down to the Ruby Mart at Mandalay and there sold by auction. In November 1899 the lease of the Ruby tract was given to the Burma Ruby Mines Co. for a yearly payment...
THA-BEIN-KYIN - Ruby Mines Dist.
A township of the Ruby Mines district, forming the southern portion of the Tagaung subdivision. It is bordered on the north by the Tagaung township, on the east by the Mong Mit (Momeit) State and the Mogok township of Ruby Mines district, on the south by Mandalay district and on the west by Shwebo.....
The headquarters are at Thebeikkyin on the Irrawaddy river, from which place a cart road starts to Mogok and Bermardmyo, distant sixty-one miles. There is a Public Works Dept. Inspection bungalow in Thabeikkyin, which has detachments of a Burma Regiment and of the Ruby Mines Battalion of Military Police. The village consists of.... The Irrawaddy Flotilla Company’s steamers running between Mandalay and Bhamo call at Thabeikkyin and there is a smaller steamer from Mandalay twice a week.
Thabeikkyin - The headquarters of the township of that name of Ruby Mines district... It is situated on the Irrawaddy river, twenty-three miles south of Twinnge and a hundred and thirty miles north of Mandalay. It is the river post and base for Mogok and the Ruby Mines villages.
Of Christians there are very few. The Rev’d. Hascall of the A.B.M. opened a girls’ and boys’ school in Jan 1888. In May 1888 the Rev’d. F.P. Sutherland of Zigon, Lower Burma, was put in charge of the station at Sagaing. A medical department was formed and also a small church in Jan. 1889
The R.C. Mission in Myinmu has at present two stations at Nabet and Chaungu. (Sagaing)...
The municipal school at Sagaing was started in August 1892
The R.C. school at Nabet was registered by the Education Dept. in 1887, the present superintendent (c. 1900) is E. Faulquire who is also in charge of similar schools in Myingyan, Pakokku, Minbu and Mawge. There is another R.C. school at Chaungu under Fr. Jirang.
A survey school was opened in Sagaing in Mar. 1890.
At the annexation the occupation of Sagaing was marked by the death in action of Surgeon Heath and Lt. Cockeram. Burmese soldiery defended for a time the fort on the right bank of the river, which, with that at Ava and a third at the head of the reach between them, were to have prevented the advance of the British force to Mandalay, aided as they were by boats sunk in the narrow river channel. But these positions were inadequately defended on the land side and were not conspicuous for strength on the river face either ad they were taken by us as early as the 14th Dec. 1885....
The classical name of Sagaing, q.v. the “Victorious City.”
Capt. Gill crossed the river in 1877..... [the Salween]
Mr Watson and Mr Fedden went down from a little below Man Pan, the capital of Maw Hpa....
Ta Sawn is fifteen to twenty miles above Kun Long. It was crossed in 1890 by Mr Daly with his part...
Then comes the Mong ...... This ferry was visited by Lt. Macquoid in 1896, he says that the .....
Mu Valley and Mogaung-Myitkyina Railway worked by Burma Railways starts from Sagaing with a link to the opposite bank of the river to join the Rangoon-Mandalay main line. The Sagaing-Ava branch railway passing through Myinmu is now (c. 1900) open to traffic of all descriptions.
Besides the waterways there is the Mu Valley Railway, running through the heart of the district, linking Myitkyina, the northern most district of the province, with Mandalay and roads....
A district in the Sagaing Divn. with an area of..... It is bounded on the north by Katha on the south by Katha and Lower Chindwin, on the west by Upper and Lower Chindwin and on the east by Ruby Mines and Mandalay districts... These boundaries differ from those that existed under Burmese rule, Wuntho then forming part of Shwebo...
Gold - in small quantities has been got from washing at In-gyi and Kkinbin and also ..... Mr Noetling, the Government Palaeontologist, who visited the neighbourhood some years ago, gave it as his opinion that the geological formation rendered it improbable that much gold would ever be found.
The forests of the eastern part of the district are almost confined to the belt which adjoins the Minwun hills. A great part of this is indaung, sandstone soil only, with no trees but the in on it. To the north, however, teak at intervals, ingyin, bamboos and almost every sort of forest tree grow luxuriantly.... One hundred and fifty square miles is estimated to be the area of protected forests east of the Mu in the Mu forest division and of it two hundred and ninety-one square miles are teak-bearing. The forests of the Ye-U subdivision abound in teak, thitya,in, ingyin an cutch and cover an area one thousand and one hundred square miles, of this are...
For purposes of administration, the Shwebo district is now divided into three subdivisions and ten townships. The northern ot Tantabin subdivision includes the three townships of Myedu, Male, Indaing. The southern or Shwebo subdivision includes Shwebo, Kyaukywa and Sheinmage townships, the western or Ye-U subdivision, the Ye-U, Taze, Shwegyin and Mayagan townships, the whole containing....
The Civil Police consists of five hundred and three officers and men, nearly all Burmese, under a European District Superintendent and two Assistant Superintendents. These are distributed throughout the district in selected places. Besides this force there are four hundred and forty-one Military police, natives of India under British Officers, who are distributed over six posts at headquarters and in the interior of the district.
Mu Valley Railway
Besides the waterways there is the Mu Valley Railway, running through the heart of the district, linking Myitkyina, the northern most district of the province, with Mandalay and roads maintained by the State between the principal towns.... Ye-U is itself connected with the railway at Kinu by a metalled road fourteen miles long. Male on the Irrawaddy is connected with the railway at Zigon by a metalled road of twenty-seven miles, Sheinmaga being similarly connected with the Paukkan station. In the dry season the railway is easily reached from all directions and communications are good.
... the manufacture is the method of glazing. This is done with a substance called kyaw, which is the residue left after the silver has been extracted from the ore. It is brought for sale from the Shan States, formerly from the Bawdwingyi mines in Tawng Peng Loi Long, latterly from Maw Son.
The history of this district begins with the history of Alaung-paya, the founder of the last Burmese dynasty...
... Alompra’s grave is still to be seen near the Public Works Departments office. Some of his relations are said to live in Mingon village, about half a mile outside the town of Shwebo.
Alompra fortified Shwebo, dug a moat and built a wall and made it his capital. He is believed to have carried out the Maha-nanda irrigation work. After his death none of the King’s descendents appears to have taken must interest in Shwebo till Prince Tharrawaddy rebelled against Ba-gyidaw and seized the throne with the aid of men from the Shwebo district....
The next appearance of the Shwebo people as King makers was when King Mindon seized the throne. Shwebo then became one more the favoured district...
Dr. Richardson describes Shwebo in 1831 ....
A subdivision of Shwebo district. It has its headquarters at Kandabu on the Mu Valley Railway. The subdivision is named after one of its towns of some ancient fame, whose legendary history is...
It is divided into three townships, Myedu, Indaing and Male. The headquarter of Myedu township are at Kanbalu, where the sub-divisional and township Courts and offices, the Post office and Military and Civil Police posts are situated.
The sub-division.... The northern part is rich in forests, the most important of which have been reserved.
.... The Indaing township lies west of the Mu river with its headquarters at Kyunhla, where are the township officers Court and a Civil and Military Police post....
Male has its headquarters at the town of that name on the Irrawaddy river. Here also there is a Court-house and a Civil Police station...
A village in the Kyidaunggan township, Pyinmana subdivision of Yamethin district...
... The railway station village was established in 1888
... Paleik was the scene of internal disturbances in the last Anglo-Burmese war. After annexation, in December 1885, the Myinzaing Prince engaged a British force at Kanthit and Kyetmya, but afterwards took flight to Yakainggyi in the then Sawhla township. Dacoities in the years that followed were frequent. Mr Walker of the Bombay Burma Trading Corporation was attached and murdered at Nyaungbingyi. Subsequently Bo Kyaw Zaw of Sunye became a dacoit leader and terrorized the district and in spite of constant pursuits was never captured. Organised dacoity ceased in the township in 1888.
A village of fifty-three houses in the Sadaung township of Sagaing district. It was formerly a Military and Civil post and was attacked by dacoits in 1888. They were repulsed close to Singaing at the mouth of the Palin chaung and their leaded Bo To was captured by the Civil Police.
TA-BA-YIN OR DI-BE-YIN
A village in the Ye-U subdivision of Shwebo... Tabayin was also the ancient seat of the race from which the Royal family of Burma sprung and the district has always been famous for its abundant supplies and for the bravery of its inhabitants, who bore the reputation of being the best soldiers in the Burmese Army. It was for his failure to keep Alaungpaya out of Tabayin that the Talaing General Talaban was recalled by the King of Pegu. The greatest modern Burmese General, Maha Bandoola (his full title was Thado Thuhamma-yaza Maha Bandula and his youthful name was Maung Yi) who fought so stubbornly in the first Burmese war, was at one time Wun of Dibeyin and a garden north of the town is still known as Bandula’s garden. He was born at Ngapayin, a village twenty five miles north of Min-ywa, it is usual to speak of him a “a son of Alon....” Dr. Richardson, in his Journal of a Mission from Ava to Kendat in 1831, says, under date 25th January “... This is the only village left of several large ones, which were situated here and were destroyed by robbers before Bandoola, who immediately preceded the present Governor, was appointed to this province. They came from Lado, about eleven miles south east of Moutshobo. Their chiefs, wearing gold chattahs, ransacked the country sometimes with two thousand followers. Bandoola, however, cleared the country, which has remained quiet sense and travelling now is perfectly safe.
A village of two hundred and ninety eight houses, the headquarters of the Ava township of Sagaing district, three miles north of Ava fort. It has a Civil Police post, a large bazaar, a rest-house, a Township Officer’s Court-house and a branch Post Office. It is the trade centre of Sagaing district...
TA-MUK-HSO - Forest
A daing or circle in the Mong Long sub-State of Hsi Paw, Northern Shan States, under nebaing. It is bounded on the north... and on the west by Singu a subdivision of Mandalay district.... The Kainggyi teak forests, worked by the Sawbwa, are in the Ta Muk Hso circle.
TAUNGGYI & FORT STEDMAN
... In the early days of occupation of the S.S. States, Taunggyi was considered a desirable situation for the headquarters of the administration. After several experiments of various positions on the plateau had been made, the present site was definitely chosen and the civil headquarters were removed from Fort Stedman and the station established on the 15th Sept. 1894....
The public buildings.... They are:- The Residency, Asst. Superintendent’s quarters, Forest Divisional Officer’s quarters, Executive Engineer’s quarters, Civil Surgeon’s quarters, Hospital Assistant’s quarters, Police Officer’s quarters. Court and offices of the Superintendent and Political Officers, Treasury, Lock-up, Public Works Dept. Office, Durbar hall, Hospital, Post Office, Telegraph Office, Circuit-house and Public Works Dept. inspection bungalow.
Each building stands in a spacious compound. On the east side of the main road are the clerk’s quarters, the Civil Police post and the trading and artisan communities.....
The garrison consists of fifty men from Fort Steadman under a commissioned native officer the military buildings include two barracks (each for twenty-five men) a quarter-guard and a native officer’s quarters. The buildings are of stone masonry. North of the town proper are the Shan quarters and bazaars and the Sawbwas’s quarter....
In the Sawbwa’s quarter the various Sawbwas and Myozas have built substantial haws in which they reside when visiting Taunggyi.
A village in the Myingyan subdivision and district and the headquarters of a Township Officer, is situated to the south of the Taunghtha hills on the Myingyan-Meiktila road..... The public buildings are a Court-house for the Township Officers, a Public Works Department bungalow and a bazaar....
... There are fine stretches of pine forest in the Kun Jawt, Myothit and Tawng Ma circles...
A little teak occurs in the Pang Long circle bear the Hsi Paw border. Everywhere the forests are being ruined by the wasteful method of hill cultivation and consequent fires.
The once celebrate silver mines of Bawdwin-gyi have now been un-worked for a generation. Most of the metal seems to have been extracted. Tigers are particularly numerous in Tawng Peng. On the Nam Tu rhinoceros are occasionally seen. ... The main route to Mandalay passes though Mong Hgaw and meets Government cart-road at Pyawng Kawng. The following tables show the results of Mr
W.G. Wooster’s inspection...
Since 1896 Taw Nio has been the headquarters of a detachment of a company of Military Police under an Assistant Commandant. The barracks are built on a low hill overlooking the village and are surrounded by an earthen ramp and ditch. The inhabitants of Taw Nio are all Chinese but there are several small Shan villages in the low valley which extends.... Taw Nio village is thus picturesquely described by Mr W.A. Graham “ It consists of one long street which every fifth day presents a busy scene, as it is the market to which all the neighbourhood comes....”
A village of two hundred and with eighty eight houses in Myotha township of Sagaing district, sixteen miles north west of Myotha. It had formerly Military and Civil Police posts, but now has no police....
The headquarters of the Assistant Superintendent of the Myelat district of the S.S. States. It is situated on the Government cart road, seventy three miles from Thazi railway station and thirty three miles from Taunggyi. Tamakan is four thousand two hundred and forty four feet above mean sea level...
A detachment of the regiment at Fort Stedman (thirty five miles away) by the cart road and twenty one miles by the bridle road to the lake) is stationed here and there is also a police force of two sergeants a thirteen constables under a native officer. A combined Post and Telegraph office and a furnished bungalow for travellers have been build and a brick hospital is under construction.
Water is scarce in the dry weather. There are no shops at Tamakan but a bazaar is held every fifth day at the Ngwe-kun-hmu’s village, where a few of the necessaries of life can be had.
A village on the west bank of the Irrawaddy river in Myitkyina district.... It lies on the main road to the Jade Mines. About six hundred men and three hundred mules pass through it yearly, carrying pots, frying pans, umbrellas, opium, kawsaw, spirits and fruit, but do not use this road on their way back from the mines.
A village of Lai Chins in the Southern Chin Hills. It lies eighteen miles south of Haka .... Thetta was formerly of much importance. It resisted the British troops until 1890, when it surrendered. It was totally disarmed in 1895. There are camping grounds above and below the village with limited water....
THI-BAW – The Burmese name of the Shan State of Hsi Paw (q.v.)
.... in the Kani township of Lower Chindwin district..... The forest of the eastern slope of the Mahudaung range abound in teak and other valuable timber and a reserve of about sixty miles has been delimited.
A township in the Katha subdivision and district with a population according to the census of 1891....
It is bounded on the east by the Irrawaddy river, on the west by the Minwun hill range and the Kawlin and Wuntho townships, on the north by Katha and Manle townships and on the south by the Tagaung township of Ruby Mines district.
... Ti-gyaing village is situated on the right bank of the Irrawaddy and for a short time after the Annexation was the headquarters of Katha district.... It is the headquarters of the present township and has a Court-house, bazaar, combined Telegraph and Post offices, a dak bungalow, Forest office and Military and Civil Police lines.
The town, with its over-hanging pagodas, is very picturesque. It is a calling station for the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company’s steamers...
...The moat and stone fort were destroyed when the Military quarters were built...
Legend ... In the circle is a famous hill which adjoins the Mawlu and Manle townships... On its summit in olden times a city was built by two princes.... During their reign the Chinese invaded the country and the two princes defended themselves at Myingin... and on the spot where the city was built the ruins of a stone fort are still to be seen....
TOKLAING or MWITUN
A village of chins... It lies seven and a half miles west of Fort White and is reached by mule road from Fort white to old Fort White (Toklaing.) ... Toklaing is inhabited by the Toklaing clan of Siyins. It was destroyed in 1889 and the site confiscated for a post; the people then settled down in Pomba, Shak and Yo, all of which were destroyed in the expedition of 1892-93. The settlers were disarmed and returned to their original site in the year following and Kamlaung, the chief, was deported to Kindat jail, where he died.Camping-grounds are available either above [or] on the site of the old Fort White near the water supply...
A district in the Sagaing Division... It is bounded on the north by Myitkyina district and Hkamti State, on the south by Lower Chindwin and Pakokku districts, on the east by Myitkyina, Katha, Shwebo and Lower Chindwin and on the west by the Chin Hills. The approximate area of the district is nineteen thousand square miles.... There are four sub-divisions: Mingun, with headquarters at Mingun; Kindat, with headquarters at Kindat; Lega-yaing, with headquarters at Homalin; and Ka-le with headquarters at Ka-lewa....
Within the Chindwin basin all the descriptions of forest hitherto met of valuable timber are plentiful, but for various causes, among them difficulties of transport, distance from large markets and so forth, teak is the only wood of any practical value at present. The teak forests are roughly estimated to cover an area of from six to seven thousand square miles, of which all but about five hundred square miles are situated in Upper Chindwin district. They cover the slopes of all the higher ridges and hills up to the twenty-sixth parallel of latitude. Above this the place of the teak is gradually taken by the Indian-rubber trees (Ficus elastic.)
Before British occupation in 1885 all forests, even in the Shan States, were considered to be Crown property and the right to work them was leased by the King. The earliest lease of which anything is known is that granted to the Yanung wundauk, which was probably in operation about the period 1870-75. This wundauk appears to have had a few elephants, but he does not seem to have worked out large timber in any quantity and probably confined his attention to working small timber in the Mingin and Ka-le neighbourhoods. At one time he attempted to work the Uyu forests, but they were soon afterwards “closed by order” and the villagers of the district were forbidden to work for him. It is not certain whence the order came, but it had been suggested that it was due to jealousy. In those days a concession such as that given to the wundauk must have caused great envy in other less fortunate officials and it is probable that a secret order was sent from Mandalay by some powerful minister to the local authorities to close the forests. Such an order was doubtless very much to the taste of the villagers, who complained of the way in which they were cheated by the wundauk. From that date the forests have never been worked and it has been and still is most difficult to obtain trustworthy information about them.
In 1880 a lease of all the Chindwin forests was granted to the Bombay-Burma Trading Corporation for a period of eight years, with the option of renewal for a further period of twelve years. When the first lease fell in, in October 1888, a renewal was granted by the British Government for twelve years. In this new lease it was stipulated –
1. that all girdling should be carried out by the Forest Department;
2. that payment should be made on the tonnage measurement of logs delivered at revenue stations on the Chindwin;
3. that a minimum of ten thousand logs a year should be extracted, or a fine imposed;
4. that all timber required for Government purposes should be delivered at fixed rates.
The following are the official returns of the timber extracted by the Corporation from the year 1886...
The Upper Chindwin districts were formed into one Forest division in May 1887, under a Deputy Conservator with a small office and subordinate staff. Revenue stations were established at Kindat and Alon and duty levied on timber, bamboos, canes and rubber passing either place. An Assistant Conservator was attached to the division in March 1888, with headquarters at Kindat. In November 1889 the headquarters of the division were transferred to Kindat and Alon became the headquarters of the lower Chindwin subdivision. A new subordinate staff was sanctioned in 1890.
The amount of revenue collected at revenue stations from 1887-1889 is given below. Timber exported to Lower Burma by the corporation is measured at Pakokku and is therefore not included...
All girdling work is done under the supervision of the Forest Department. In 1888, as the Forest Officer could not superintend the work, permission was given to the Corporation to carry out the girdling themselves. The following statement gives the number of trees that have been girdled...
When the Chindwin forest division was formed the whole of the teak areas were undetermined and un-surveyed. Survey work and the description of the forests was therefore of primary importance. The number of miles of traverse and the number of square miles of teak forest mapped out were ...
The areas which had up till 1891 been proposed as teak reserves were:-
23rd Nov. 1888
No account of the forest administration later than 1891 is available. The climate of the district is healthy during the cold season but in the rains and hot season here is much fever, dysentery and diarrhoea and occasionally, at the commencement of the hot weather, there are outbreaks of cholera and small-pox. The most unhealthy portions of the district are the Ka-le and Kabaw valleys, which during the rains are fatal to Europeans.
... The chief towns are Kindat, Mingin, Paungbyin and Ka-le-myo.
... The unsettled condition of the Chindwin country for several years after the Annexation and the want of effective means of communication have militated against any adequate development of trade in the district. Such trade as here is, is carried on for the most part along the waterways, primarily of course, the Chindwin river, by which produce is taken down to Monywa and the Irrawaddy.
... There are two routes by which a certain amount of trade filters into the district, besides the Chindwin river, (1) from Mogaung and Myitkyina and the Jade and Amber Mines Tracts, the Uyu river affords a passage into Homalin subdivision and further west still into....
... exports are teak, bamboo, jade, wax, ebony, cane-mats, amber, pickled tea, Indian-rubber and occasionally a little gold.
WAN YIN (Burmese Banyin)
A state in the eastern division of the S. S. State... The succession of chiefs since that have been ...
The revenue inspector of the Wan Yin State had been twice carried out by F.H. Giles, Myook, in 1891 and by D.M. Gordon, Sub-divisional Officer in 1897....
A small village in the Momeik township of Ruby Mines district.... and game abounds in the jungles around. Rhinoceros have been shot on the Hnamadaw range south of Webaung and elephant, deer, bison and wild cattle are also numerous.
A subdivision of Katha district comprising the townships of Wuntho, Kawlin and Pinlebu....
When King Mindon died in 1878 and King Thibaw succeeded, Maung Shwe Tha abdicated in favour of his eldest son Maung Aung... In the waning of the Tasaungmon (Nov.) 1885, King Thibaw was deported by the British Government and on the forth waning of Pyatko (23rd Jan. 1886) Aung Myat left Wuntho and established himself at Pinlebu.... he fled Kyaingkwin and has kept of out the way ever since...
As a history this is barely satisfactory and is more patriotic than accurate. It is practically certain that Wuntho (Shan, Wying Hso, the city of the tiger) was never an independent Shan State and in the balmy days of Mogaung and Mo-hnyin was probably a mere htamonship.
In February 1891, the Sawbwa, Aung Myat, who up to the time had remained on fairly friendly, but not altogether satisfactory terms, with the British Government, rose in rebellion. He was probably suspicious of the action of Government in introducing the railway into part of his territory. The reservation of forests also and the demand for disarmament, but most of all the influence of his stubborn old father, Maung Shwe Tha, who was then living in hiding in the territory, probably led him to this action.
The Military Police posts along the western borders were simultaneously attacked. This led to an expedition being sent onto the State, but before it arrived local parties had put an end to all the resistance. Wuntho was then brought under direct control and divided between Katha and Ye-u (Shwebo) districts....
Wuntho is a station on the Mu Valley Railway and is gaining much in importance as a trade centre for export of grain. It was the former resistance of the ex Sawbwa of Wuntho, who rebelled and was deposed in 1891. After the British occupation of Upper Burma, however, the Sawbwa changed his abode to Pinlebu. The public buildings are a Court-house and bazaar....
A district in the Meiktila division, with an area of... The district is bounded on the north by Meiktila and on the south by the S. S. States... and on the west by Magwe and Myingan districts. It is divided into the subdivisions of Yamethin and Pyinmana and these are further divided into six townships as follows:-
The Pyinmana subdivision was a separate district from the Annexation in 1885 until October 1893, when it became part of Yamethin district. The division between Pyinmana and Yamethin districts, as originally constituted, was the Ngaleik chaung on the right bank of which the town of Pyinmana is situated. Subsequently, however, the country to the south of the Sin-the chaung was handed over to Pyinmana and the following townships lying to the north were taken from Meiktila: Yindaw, Yanaung and Nyaungyan, besides a portion of the Shwe-pyi Yan-aung or Myin district....
The two subdivisions differ very considerably in character, since while Yamethin is just on the verge of the dry zone of Upper Burma, Pyinmana with its forests usually has a heavy rainfall....
The Pyinmana subdivision may be described as a huge forest, with a cultivated tracts some twenty miles in radius around the town of Pyinmana and small patches elsewhere...
The only river of the subdivision is the Sittang or Paung-laung, which rises in the hills east of Yamethin and for the first part of its course runs through a wild mountainous country until it debouches into the plains southeast of Pyinmana. From this point it is known as the Sittang. ....
At Pinthaung, sixteen miles north east of Yamethin, there are the remains of old workings from which copper, lead and silver were extracted at some remote date.
At Yamethin and Yindaw in Burmese times saltpetre was extracted, from which gunpowder was manufactured and a salt alkaline earth is found in many parts of the district and is used as soap....
There are seven hundred and eighty-five square miles or... acres of reserved forest in the Pyinmana subdivision. The principal Reserves are:-
By a notification dated 3rd December 1898, the Myittha Reserve in the Yamethin subdivision, with an approximate area of ninety square miles was constituted. The more productive forests in this subdivision are in the east and contain teak and pyinkada with a large proportion of indaing. Cutch grows extensively on the Magwe border...
A large body of natives of India has been settled for many generations in a portion of the Yamethin subdivision and usually live in villages apart from the Burmese. The origin of the settlement is given as follows...
It is probable that there has been a large increase of population in the southern subdivision from the time of the Annexation, especially since the opening of the railway and during the years when crops failed in the dry zone and were successful in Pyinmana townships. The chief towns in the southern subdivision are Pyinmana, Lewa, Kyidaunggan, Shwemyo and Yazin. Pyinmana is a long way ahead of the others, which are little better than ordinary jungle villages. There is a hospital with accommodation for thirty-six patients, besides a branch dispensary in the town. Pyinmana has a Municipal Committee and a population.......
Pyinmana owes its prosperity to the teak industry above everything else. The lessees of the valuable teak forests are the Bombay-Burma Trading Corporation and the carrying on of their business has brought great wealth to many of the inhabitants of Pyinmana. Some local industries have arisen in the wake of the Corporation. Among them may be mentioned a saw-mill and a soda-water manufacturer....
At the time of the annexation the town was known as Ningyan but Pyinmana was very soon substituted for this name.
Yamethin – the headquarters town of the district of that name in the Meiktila division is the residence of the Deputy Commissioner, Assistant Commissioner, Battalion Commander of Military police, Superintendent of Civil Police and other officers. It was formerly the headquarters of the Commissioner of the Eastern Division, now moved to Meiktila....
There are railway repairing shops at Yamethin.
YAWNG HWE (Burmese Nyaung-ywe)
A State in the Central Division of the Southern Shan States....
... Peas and beans usually border the garlic beds and.... Of late years wheat has been a very successful crop in the Yawng Hwa valley. The cultivation was introduced by Mr Hildebrand, the first Superintendent.
A township in the Magwe district. ... Yenangyaung is the headquarters of the township and has a Court and Circuit-house, Police station, Hospital and Bazaar.
Yenangyaung has eight villages, the principal being Yenangyaung, Twingon (east and west) and Beme..
Myaunghla comprises four villages... Pinwa, with five villages...
The earth-oil wells of Yenangyaung are the largest in Burma. The actual oil-field lies at Twingon and Beme about three miles from Yenangyaung. The wells have been worked for many years, but it is only within a very recent period that much activity has been shown. Messrs. Findlay Fleming & Co. of Rangoon, Agents for the Burma Oil Co. have grants of four blocks. The field comprises the native reserves of Twingon and Beme and four blocks leased to the Burma Oil Co...
.. The whole town (Yenangyaung) consists of Twinsas, oil-well owners, traders and coolies...
YENGAN (Burmese Ywa-ngan)
A State in the Myelat district of the Southern Shan States with an approximate area....
...The western is hilly and is well watered by the Panlaung river and it effluents. On this side is the range over hanging the Irrawaddy river plain, maintaining an average... Along this river are some excellent teak forests, which are worked by Messrs Darwood & Co. under a lease dating from the Burmese King’s times....
... Bo Nga Lan was allowed to escape by the 1st Biluchi Regt. but after disturbing the Myelat for over a year was surrounded and killed by Capt. V.C. Tonnochy at Pwe La in 1890. Since then the State has been quiet, almost for the first time in history.
A subdivision of Shwebo district with a population....
The subdivision is separated from the main portion of the district by the Mu river. It includes, besides the Yu-u township, the townships of Ta-ze Shwe-gyin nad Myagan, with ....
The subdivision is hilly and thickly wooded to the north and west; it contains the great Hnaw forest and is rich in teak and other reserved timbers...
What is now the Ye-U subdivision formed until 1895 a separate district. In that year part of the original district was incorporated with Shwebo and part with Upper Chindwin district.
In early times the headquarters of the Ye-U neighbourhood were at Dibayin, which at one time was a prosperous walled town but is now nothing better than a hamlet...
... Ye-U was in 1890 the headquarters of Military and Civil Police forces, whose total strength numbered 939. Their strength has been considerably reduced since that year. At Ye-U town are situated the Sub-divisional and Township court, a Hospital and Civil and Military Police posts.
... Ye-U and Tabayin with Shwebo, had the credit of supplying the best fighting men in the Burmese army.
A village in the Yaw township, Yawdin subdivision of Pakokku district, with a population of.... The village is situated at the foot of the hill which leads to Mindat-sakan in the Chin Hills, where a Military post is stationed.
A township in the Yamethin subdivision and district.... Yindaw town is partially surrounded by a moat and ruined wall. It is in two parts, one of which is inhabited by the descendants of natives of India who settled long ago in the district. They have now considerably more Burmese than Indian blood, but still have easily recognizable Indian features and colour of skin. No particulars as to the original settlement are available.
A village of one hundred and twenty houses in Sagaing township and district, three miles north of Sagaing town. The central station, railways workshops, headquarter dwellings and other buildings of the Mu Valley Railway are established here.